## 143.Concentration units – Normality (1).

4.Normality Normality is a concentration unit that uses chemical equivalent or gram equivalent term. This concentration term is not very commonly used in today’s laboratories.

## 142.Concentration units.

In analytical chemistry one often has to deal with solutions and thus it is very important to know parameters used to define concentration. A solvent

## 141.The mole concept(4).

Before starting to solve problems on the mole concept, let us jot down a few important formulae – Let us solve some problems based on

## 140.The Mole concept(3).

In the previous post, we discussed how to relate a measurable quantity , volume , to a mole. In this post we will discuss how

## 139.The Mole Concept (2)

In the last post we left some questions unanswered. Questions like –How does one relate the number of particles to volume and mass of the

## 138.The Mole Concept(1).

In this post, we are going to study one of the most seminal concepts, not only in analytical but in entire chemistry. Understanding this concept

## 137.Introduction(2).

9.Confidence Limit (CL)-  The confidence limit is the level of confidence we have about a value being  statistically  significant. Confidence Limit (CL)=  100 × (1 − α)

## 136. Introduction(1).

From this post onwards we will start getting acquainted with some fundamentals of analytical chemistry. What is analytical chemistry? What all topics does it encompass?

## 135. Practice problems(2).

5) Is it cyclic ? ✓ Conjugated double bonds ? ✓ Is it planar? × # of π electrons 8 # of lone pair of

## 134.Practice problems(1).

Q: Classify the following compounds as aromatic, anti-aromatic or non-aromatic – 1) Is it cyclic ? ✓ Conjugated double bonds ? ✓ Is it planar?

## 133.Homoaromaticity.

“There is no exception to the rule, that every rule has an exception.”- James Thurber. After learning all about aromaticity and antiaromaticity, we now proceed

## 132.Criteria for Aromaticity(2).

Let us now begin to discuss the magnetic properties of aromatic compounds. 3]Magnetic properties. I) Aromatic ring current– Aromatic compounds have delocalised , closed loop